Faculty Member to Study Social Networking
Jennifer Richardson, faculty member in learning design and technology in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction, is receiving a Faculty Fellowship for Study in a Second Discipline for the 2014-15 academic year from Purdue's Office of the Provost. The program offers faculty members the opportunity to extend their scholarship through a new area of study that complements their major area of teaching and research. Professor Richardson, who specializes in online learning, will study social network theories in order to apply them to the context of online learning.
New University Faculty Scholars Named
Nadine Dolby, faculty member in curriculum studies in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction, and Aman Yadav, faculty member in educational psychology in the Department of Educational Studies, have been named University Faculty Scholars effective at the beginning of 2014. The University Faculty Scholars Program recognizes outstanding faculty members at the West Lafayette campus who are on an accelerated path for academic distinction. Eligible faculty must hold the rank of tenured associate or full professor and have been in that rank for no more than five years. Faculty Scholars are appointed for a nonrenewable five year term and receive an annual discretionary allocation. Emily Bouck in the Department of Educational Studies and Brenda Capobianco in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction are the other current University Faculty Scholars in the College of Education.
Purdue to Lead State Math Science Partnership Project
Carla Johnson, faculty member in science education in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction and associate director of CATALyST, the Center for the Advancement of Teaching and Learning of STEM, is the PI of a new Math Science Partnership grant from the Indiana Department of Education. Lynn Bryan, faculty member in science education and director of CATALyST, and Tamara Moore, faculty member in engineering education, are project Co-PIs. The project, entitled P-STEM: Partnership for Advancing Integrated STEM Education, will create a systemic, sustained partnership focused on the transformation of entire schools within the Maconaquah and Kokomo School Corporations in partnership with Purdue University. The goal is to achieve truly integrated STEM elementary and middle schools led by STEM educators who are deeply engaged in refining their practice through advanced content and pedagogical professional development. At the end of this project, four STEM schools will be established with teachers who possess extensive credentials for teaching integrated STEM. Further, students who attend these schools will be immersed in technology-rich environments for learning which reach outside traditional boundaries of schooling.
Counselor Educator Receives Award
Chris Slaten, faculty member in school counseling in the Department of Educational Studies, has received an Exemplary School Counselor Award from the Indiana School Counselor Association. The association names winners at the elementary, middle school, high school, and counselor educator levels, and Professor Slaten was chosen as winner at the counselor educator level. The ISCA awards were presented at the ISCA Fall Conference Awards luncheon in November.
Non-Laboratory Equipment Grants Awarded
College of Education faculty members have received grants from the Office of the Vice President for Research (OVPR) for non-laboratory research equipment and materials. Grant recipients include: Emily Bouck, Susan Britsch, Yukiko Maeda, and Helen Patrick (pictured from left to right above). This is the second year the OVPR has provided these grants for faculty in non-laboratory disciplines.
Gifted Education Researcher Honored for Service
Sidney Moon, faculty member in gifted education in the Department of Educational Studies and associate dean for engagement, has been selected as the recipient of the 2013 National Association for Gifted Children (NAGC) Distinguished Service Award. The National Association for Gifted Children (NAGC) annually presents the Distinguished Service Award to an individual who has made significant contributions to the field of gifted education and to the development of the organization. This award is given to an individual who has been in the field for more than 10 years and has shown evidence of making major contributions in at least two of the selection criteria areas, or a significant contribution with lasting impact on the field of gifted education in one of the areas. These contributions must have been ongoing and must demonstrate a continued commitment over time. The award was presented at the NAGC annual meeting in November 2013.
Faculty Members Named APA Fellows
Ayse Ciftci, faculty member in Counseling Psychology, and Helen Patrick, faculty member in Educational Psychology, both in the Department of Educational Studies, have been selected as Fellows of the American Psychological Association. Professor Ciftci was selected for Division 52 - International Psychology, and she also received a Division 52 Early Career Psychologist Award. Professor Patrick was selected for Division 15 - Educational Psychology. Fellow status is an honor bestowed upon APA members who have shown evidence of unusual and outstanding contributions or performance in the field of psychology. Fellow status requires that a person's work has had a national impact on the field of psychology beyond a local, state or regional level. A high level of competence or steady and continuing contributions are not sufficient to warrant fellow status. National impact must be demonstrated.
School Counseling Educator Receives Awards
Carrie Wachter-Morris, a faculty member in the school counseling program in the Department of Educational Studies, has been named the recipient of the 2013 Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) Publication in Counselor Education and Supervision Award. This award honors a significant publishing effort by an ACES member focusing on the education and supervision of counselors. The awards committee chooses the article they believe best introduces new perspectives while stimulating continued conversation on the topic. Professor Wachter-Morris was recognized for her article: Wachter Morris, C. A., & Barrio Minton, C. A. (2013). Crisis in the curriculum?: New counselors’ crisis preparation, experiences, and self-efficacy. Counselor Education & Supervision, 51, 256-269. Professor Wachter-Morris was also honored for her teaching at Purdue by being inducted as a Fellow in Purdue's Teaching Academy in fall 2013. The Teaching Academy recognizes excellence in teaching and brings together the best teaching faculty across campus to create a collective voice for teaching and learning at Purdue.
Computer Science Project to be Led by Education Researcher
Aman Yadav, faculty member in educational psychology in the Department of Educational Studies with a courtesy appointment in the Department of Computer Science, is the PI of a newly funded NSF project to provide professional development for computer science teachers. The project, in partnership with Project Lead the Way (PLTW), is entitled "Leading the Way to CS10K: Assessing a Just-in-Time Professional Development Approach for Teacher Knowledge Growth in Computer Science." The project will develop and implement a high-quality professional development approach for teaching computer science that incorporates face-to-face training coupled with continuous online just-in-time support at a large-scale and assess the effectiveness of that professional development. PLTW is a non-profit organization that has successfully implemented innovative and rigorous STEM curriculum in over 4,700 schools and is introducing a new Computer Science and Software Engineering (CSE) course. The large network of schools implementing this new course provides the opportunity to implement and study professional development for a large number of teachers. This large-scale project will establish an evidence-based professional development program to improve teachers' knowledge to teach computer science, and it will deliver empirically validated best practices for providing computer science professional development to teachers, especially those with limited computer science background. The project team includes James Lehman of the College of Education, John T. Korb and Suzanne Hambrusch of the Department of Computer Science, and Brian French of Wahington State University.
Faculty Member in Gifted Studies Elected to NAGC Post
Kristina Ayers Paul, Assistant Professor of Gifted, Creative, and Talented Studies, has been elected as the Chair-Elect for the National Association for Gifted Children’s (NAGC) Computers and Technology network. As of September 1, 2013, Kristina has begun serving a two-year term as Chair-Elect, which will be followed by a two year term as Chair. As one of 15 networks in NAGC, the Computers and Technology Network is committed to initiating, developing, and implementing practices and materials that will promote the use of all types of information technology to improve the teaching and learning process, particularly in gifted education. Specifically, the Network focuses on activities that promote (1) the recognition and acceptance of, and the commitment to, information technology skills as a fundamental area of training for gifted and talented students, (2) research in areas relating to the use of information technologies in education; and (3) practical strategies and activities to foster the use of information technologies in gifted education.
Education Faculty Member on AGEP Grant
Aman Yadav, faculty member in educational psychology in the Department of Educational Studies, is Co-PI of a recently funded project from NSF's Alliances for Graduate Education and the Professoriate (AGEP) program. The project, entitled AGEP-Transformation: The CIC Professorial Advancement Initiative, is a collaboration between the University of Illinois-Champaign (UIUC) and Purdue University (PU) to partner with other university members of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC) to increase the number of underrepresented minority (URM) faculty members hired within the CIC partnering institutions. The project includes a research study focusing on determining how the mentoring environment, ranging from a micro-systems (e.g., peer-to-peer interactions, faculty-to-peer interactions) to macro-systems (e.g., broader social context), affects the self-efficacy and identity of postdoctoral fellows within STEM disciplines. Mark Smith, Dean of the Graduate School, is the project PI.
Education Researchers Collaborate on Interdisciplinary Incentive Grants
Three researchers from the College of Education are collaborating on recently funded interdisciplinary incentive grants from the university. The Emerging Research Incentive Grant program, a new initiative of the OVPR, awarded grants through a university-wide competition. Nadine Dolby, faculty member in curriculum studies in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction, and Dan Shepardson, faculty member in science education with a joint appointment in Curriculum and Instruction and Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, are part of the team on "Global Soundscapes: Science, Engineering and Education Research to Preserve Earth's Acoutic Heritage." Lynn Bryan, faculty member in science education with a joint appointment in Curriculum and Instruction and Physics, is part of the team on "Learning Quantum Mechanics through Modeling-Based Instruction: Advancing STEM Education across Scale and Disciplines." This is the first year that the university has funded these research incentive grants, which are intended to spark efforts that will break new ground in interdisciplinary research.
Special Education Faculty Member Receives Commercialization Funds
Oliver Wendt, jointly appointed faculty member in Special Education and Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, is one of five faculty members campus-wide who were awarded Trask Innovation funds from the university to help them commercialize innovations. Professor Wendt received his award for "Development of SPEAK more! A Language Training App for Individuals with Severe Autism." The technology shows promise in helping individuals affected by severe, non-verbal autism to foster more robust communication with their families and others.. More...
Math Education Faculty Member Receives NAE Fellowship
Laura Bofferding, faculty member in Mathematics Education in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction, has been awarded a National Academy of Education/Spencer Postdoctoral Fellowship. This program supports early career scholars working in critical areas of education research. This postdoctoral fellowship funds proposals that make significant scholarly contributions to the field of education. The program also develops the careers of its recipients through professional development activities involving National Academy of Education members. Professor Bofferding's project will extend over two years as she investigates first-graders’ (year 1) and kindergartners’ (year 2) developing understanding of negative numbers in the context of a board game. Results will add to our understanding of the development of numerical concepts, particularly if children can learn negative number concepts while learning positive number concepts or only after developing positive number knowledge. More...
Special Education Faculty Member Receives Kinley Trust Award
Emily Bouck, faculty member in Special Education in the Department of Educational Studies, has been awarded a one-year grant from the Clifford B. Kinley Trust at Purdue. The project entitled, "Promoting Independence through Assistive Technology," is aimed at improving the independence of individuals with cognitive disabilities by using assistive technology to help with everyday tasks such as grocery shopping. The review panel praised the proposal for its excellent use of single subject design and clear methods connected to outcomes. The Clifford B. Kinley Trust was established in 1978 to fund research which uses a social science perspective to explore methods for improving the human condition. Grants are awarded on a competitive basis.
Researchers Receive University Incentive Grant
Helen Patrick and Youli Mantzicopoulos, faculty members in the educational psychology program in the Department of Educational Studies, are the investigators on an Emerging Research Incentive Grant from Purdue's Office of the Vice President for Research. The Emerging Research Incentive Grant program, a new initiative of the OVPR, awarded grants through a university-wide competition for the first time this year. The project proposed by Professors Patrick and Mantzicopoulos, "Evaluting Effective Teaching with a Content-Independent Measure: Does Subject Matter Make a Difference in Kindergarten?," will address critical questions about the evaluation of teacher effectiveness, a topic at the forefront of national and state debates about education. The project will run through August, 2015.
Chemistry Educator Receiving Award
Mary Nakhleh, recently retired chemistry educator who was jointly appointed in the Departments of Chemistry and Curriculum and Instruction, is being honored as the recipient of the 2013 American Chemical Society Award for Achievement in Research for the Teaching and Learning of Chemistry. The award recognizes outstanding contributions to experimental research that have increased our understanding of chemical pedagogy and led to the improved teaching and learning of chemistry. The award will be made at the ACS National Awards Ceremony and Banquet onTuesday, April 9th in New Orleans.
Faculty Member to Work with Computer Science
Aman Yadav, faculty member in educational psychology in the Department of Educational Studies, is receiving a Faculty Fellowship for Study in a Second Discipline from Purdue's Office of the Provost. The program offers faculty members the opportunity to extend their scholarship through a new area of study that complements their major area of teaching and research. Professor Yadav is a Co-PI of the CS4EDU project, an NSF-funded initiative focused on preparing secondary teachers to teach computer science. The fellowship will allow him to extend his collaborations with the Department of Computer Science on computer science education.
Purdue to Host Bejamin Franklin Transatlantic Fellows Summer Institute
Anatoli Rapoport, faculty member in social studies education in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction, will direct the Benjamin Franklin Transatlantic Fellows Summer Institute with funding from the U.S. Department of State. Participants in the summer institute will be 16-18 year old teenagers from the United States and Europe who are interested in learning about international relations, diplomacy, international cooperation, democratic development, democratic citizenship, civil society, the role of media, public policy, and community service. The institute will feature academically rigorous and culturally diverse content; opportunities for participants to meet with prominent scholars and practitioners in the areas of diplomacy, media and communication, civic education, and science; and opportunities to develop socially meaningful projects that they will be able to implement in their schools or communities. The institute will run from the end of June to the end of July, 2013. Collaborators include the Brian Lamb School of Communication, the Department of Political Science, the Ackerman Center for Democratic Citizenship, and the Tippecanoe School Corporation.
Service Learning Grant Awarded
Lynn Bryan, faculty member in science education and Director of the Center for Research and Engagement in Science and Mathematics Education, was one of five faculty members campuswide selected to receive a Service Learning Faculty Development Grant to incorporate service-learning projects and curriculum into their 2013 courses. The award recognizes dedication and commitment to service-learning and contribution to scholarly work. More...
Primary Students' Development of Science Conceptual Understanding Focus of New Study
Ala Samarapungavan, faculty member in educational psychology and head of the Department of Educational Studies, is the PI of a new grant project from the National Science Foundation entitled, "Modeling in Primary Grades (MPG): Science Learning through Content Rich Inquiry." Lynn Bryan, faculty member in science education in the Departments of Curriculum and Instruction and Physics, Yukiko Maeda, faculty member in educational psychology, and Nicholas Giordano, head of Physics, are project Co-PIs. This exploratory project examines how teachers of second grade students scaffold the development of student conceptual models and their understanding of the nature of scientific models and modeling processes in physical science conceptual areas associated with the particulate nature of matter. The project will employ a mixed methodological research design that incorporates rich qualitative data collection and analysis combined with a quasi-experimental design that examines student learning across a treatment and comparison group with the same curricular materials but with differing support for teachers to engage students in disciplinary productive discussions about the science phenomena that they are studying.
Special Education Researcher's Work Impacting Math Education
Yan Ping Xin, faculty member in special education in the Department of Educational Studies, has been invited to contribute to a new two-volume work on research into practice in mathematics education being developed at the request of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. The book will feature summaries of key articles published in the Journal of Research in Mathematics Education, and Dr. Xin's 2008 article, “The Effect of Schema-Based Instruction in Solving Mathematics Word Problems: An Emphasis on Prealgebraic Conceptualization of Multiplicative Relations,” was chosen for inclusion. Her work on conceptual model-based problem solving in mathematics will also be showcased in a forthcoming book from Sense Publishers authored by Dr. Xin, Conceptual Model-Based Problem Solving: Teach Students with Learning Difficulties to Solve Math Problems.
Measurement Researcher Focusing on Pedagogical Feedback Tool in Engineering
Yukiko Maeda, faculty member in educational psychology and research methodology in the Department of Educational Studies, is Co-PI of an NSF-funded project focusing on the implementation of a multidimensional assessment tool in undergraduate engineering courses and its impacts on both instructor pedagogical expertise and student learning outcomes. In the project, about 2500 undergraduate engineering students will use the Global Real-time Assessment Tool for Teaching Enhancement (G-RATE) to provide pedagogical feedback to their course instructors. The research will investigate whether the feedback from the G-RATE improves the development of instructors' pedagogical expertise and student learning outcomes. The project PI is Monica Cox, professor of Engineering Education. More...
Faculty Member Collaborating on New Learning Technology
Bill Watson, assistant professor of learning design and technology, is working with the Information Technology at Purdue (ITaP) organization to help shift the educational system to learner-centered engagement and skill building, as opposed to knowledge delivery through traditional lectures, in part with new technology to support the change. Kyle Bowen, ITaP’s director of Informatics, is partnering with Watson to create a personalized educational system, which will provide four primary pieces for use in driving student learning: record keeping, planning, instruction and assessment. The goal is to move beyond current learning software to create a system that helps students define their own learning paths and keep track of their progress. The system also would incorporate the idea of measuring student success based on mastery of specific and pre-defined skills. More...
Providing Access to Advanced Math for Visually Impaired Students
Emily Bouck, faculty member in Special Education in the Department of Educational Studies, has been awarded a two-year grant from the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation through its Steppingstones of Technology Innovation for Children with Disabilities program. The goal of the project is to refine and evaluate the use of digital text readers, specifically MathSpeak-based technology, to support secondary students with visual impairments in using mathematics in the algebra classroom. The project aims to provide these students with access to standard algebra, improve their independence in mathematics, and improve their attitudes toward algebra.
Defining Global Engineering Competencies
Ayse Ciftci, faculty member in Counseling Psychology in the Department of Educational Studies, is Co-PI of an NSF grant project focused on building a theoretical framework for defining outcomes-based global engineering competencies. The goal of the project is to develop foundational knowledge about the complexities and multi-dimensionality of the term "global competence" so that a shared understanding of global competence in STEM education can be developed. The project PI is P.K. Imbrie in Engineering Education, and Rabi Mohtar in Agricultural and Biological Engineering is also a Co-PI.
Counseling Researcher Focuses on Grief and Loss
Heather Servaty-Seib, faculty member in counseling psychology in the Department of Educational Studies, studies the various ways in which people deal with grief and loss. Her work was featured in a recent Purdue Today article. Using a framework of gains and losses, she aims to get people thinking and talking about death, dying, grief and loss on individual, institutional and societal levels. Through research and student engagement via service-learning, she looks at the multidimensional aspects of grief -- emotional, cognitive, behavioral, social, and spiritual. More...
Researchers to Investigate Algebra Teaching Approaches
Jill Newton, faculty member in mathematics education in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction, and Yukiko Maeda, faculty member in educational psychology and research methods in the Department of Educational Studies, have been awarded a 3-year NSF REESE grant entitled, "Preparing to Teach Algebra (PTA): A Study of Teacher Education." The project will investigate how state-level policies related to algebra and recently released algebra expectations are addressed in secondary mathematics teacher education programs. The project will seek to understand how opportunities for developing knowledge for teaching algebra are provided in different teacher preparation programs using a mixed-methods approach.
Gifted Education Researcher Among Most Prolific
Marcia Gentry, professor of gifted education in the Department of Educational Studies, has been identified as one of the most prolific researchers in the field in a recently published study. An article by David Yun Dai, Joan Ann Swanson, and Hongyu Cheng, published in Gifted Child Quarterly (2011, 55(2), 126-138), reported on a study that surveyed more than 1200 empirical studies on giftedness, gifted education, and creativity from 1998-2010. The most prolific researchers and research teams were identified, and Professor Gentry ranked 9th overall with 11 publications during that period.
SLED Math Science Partnership Project Launched
Brenda Capobianco, faculty member in science education and courtesy faculty member in engineering education, is Co-PI and project co-leader of a new National Science Foundation Math Science Partnership project entitled, "Science Learning through Engineering Design (SLED)." The project focuses on the use of engineering design as a vehicle for teaching science in grades 3 through 6. Partnering in the project are Purdue's Colleges of Education, Engineering, Science, and Technology; the Discovery Learning Research Center; and the Lafayette, Tippecanoe, Taylor Community, and Plymouth schools. The project will span five years and impact about 200 teachers and 5000 students. More...
Project Focusing on Energy Concepts for Rural Schools
Peg Ertmer, faculty member in learning design and technology, is part of a team leading a new National Science foundation funded project. The project, entitled "A Sustainable Energy Concepts Professional Development Model for Rural Schools and Its Extension to a Systemic Approach for Integrating STEM Research and Education," is under the direction of Provost Timothy D. Sands, Gabriela C. Weaver, Director of the Discovery Learning Research Center, and Maureen McCann, Director of the Energy Center. The project is designed to increase interest and engagement in STEM disciplines by providing professional development to help rural teachers in Indiana to integrate sustainable energy topics in the classroom.
Purdue Education Researchers Awarded High Honor
Helen Patrick, Panayota (Youli) Mantzicopoulos, and Ala Samarapungavan, faculty members in the educational psychology program, have received the 2010 Journal of Research in Science Teaching (JRST) Award for publishing the outstanding article in Volume 46 (2009) of JRST. Their article featured work from the Scientific Literacy Project, an initiative supported by a 3-year, U. S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences grant. This project investigated kindergarten students' learning of scientific inquiry processes and was cited in the March 2010 issue of Scientific American . For more information about the project, see www.purduescientificliteracyproject.org.
Gifted Education Researcher Awarded IES Grant
Marcia Gentry, faculty member in gifted education, is the principal investigator on a new grant from the U. S. Department of Education, Institute for Education Sciences that will experimentally investigate the effects of scaling up the Total School Cluster Grouping (TSCG) Model. TSCG is a research-based, total-school application of cluster grouping combined with differentiation, focused on meeting the needs of students identified as gifted, while also improving the learning and achievement of all students. Research has shown that TSCG improves achievement and increases the numbers of students identified as gifted who come from economically disadvantaged families and from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. For more information, see geri.education.purdue.edu/research/grants.html.
Science Educator Elected AAAS Fellow
Anita Roychoudhury, faculty member in the science education program, was elected as a Fellow in the American Academy for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). She was recognized at the AAAS Annual Meeting in San Diego in February, 2010. See www.aaas.org/news/releases/2009/1218fellows.shtml.
Education Faculty Assisting with NIH Grant
Education faculty members, including Marcia Gentry in Gifted and Talented Studies, are members of the leadership team of an NIH-funded project directed by Timothy Ratliff and Sandra Amass in the School of Veterinary Medicine. Entitled Fat Dogs and Coughing Horses: Animal Contributions towards a Healthier Citizenry, the project will develop, deliver, and assess hands-on, problem-based learning curricular materials for students in grades 3, 6, and 9 that focus on health issues that affect both people and animals and how animal models play an important role in biomedical research. The project is designed to both inform and excite schoolchildren about careers in health science research and to encourage activities for better health. See http://www.vet.purdue.edu/engagement/sepa/.
Grant to Prepare Faculty to Use Technologies in Special Education
Emily Bouck and Teresa Taber Doughty, faculty members in special education, have received a grant from the U. S. Department of Education to support the Technologies in Special Education (TISE) Scholar Program. This project will prepare doctoral students in special education for academic positions in higher education focusing on technologies in special education. TISE Scholars will be funded for doctoral study for two years and will complete apprenticeships in teaching, research, and service.
Preparing Secondary Teachers to Teach Computer Science
Education faculty members James Lehman and Aman Yadav are Co-PIs of a National Science Foundation grant project, conducted in collaboration with the Department of Computer Science, focused on preparing educators to teach computer science at the high school level. Dubbed CS4EDU: Computer Science for Education, the project seeks to address shortages of computer scientists by contributing to a national effort to get computer science taught in 10,000 high schools by 10,000 well-qualified teachers by 2015. The project is developing a computer science teaching endorsement program, including a new CS teaching methods course, that will be open to all secondary education majors at Purdue. See cs4edu.cs.purdue.edu.
Understanding Student's Conceptions of Climate Change
Anita Roychoudhury, faculty member in science education, is the principal investigator of an NSF-funded grant project, "Making Sense of Global Warming and Climate Change: Model of Student Learning via Collaborative Research." This research project is developing a model of student learning in the complex domain of climate change and global warming. These topics require an understanding of climate science and underlying physics concepts yet the coherence between the two areas is rarely a focus in K-12 school level science. Science teachers from four school districts and 500 students from their classrooms (7th and 8th grades) are participating in the project. These teachers are collaborating with the Purdue research team in developing, modifying, and implementing lessons in middle school classrooms.
Project Helping Students to Learn to Multiply
Yan Pin Xin, associate professor of special education, is the principal investigator of a 5-year National Science Foundation funded project that is studying how students with learning difficulties develop multiplicative reasoning and using this knowledge to develop a computer system that models students' evolving conceptions and suggests tasks to help students achieve higher levels of performance. Entitled Nurturing Multiplicative Reasoning in Students with Learning Disabilities in a Computerized Conceptual-Modeling Environment, this research and development project will augment teaching practice by providing the tools to analyze student conceptions and enact best-practice on an individual, student-needs basis. The goal of the project is to diminish the gap between students with learning disabilities/difficulties and their normal achieving peers.